A lifter shall be designed to withstand the forces imposed by its rated load, with a minimum design factor of 3, based on yield strength, for the load bearing structural components.
1. Welding: all welding shall be in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1.1
2. Guards for moving parts: exposed moving parts such as, but not limited to, gearing, projecting shafts, and chain drives, that constitute a hazard under normal operating conditions, should be guarded.
3. Electrical equipment: electrical equipment and wiring shall comply with Article 610 of ANSI/NFPA 70.
4. Modifications: structural and mechanical lifters may be modified or re-rated provided such modifications are analyzed by a qualified person or a manufacturer of structural or mechanical lifting devices. A re-rated lifter or one whose components have been modified shall be tested according to ANSI/ASME B30.20 section on testing. New rated load shall be displayed.
Preventive maintenance: a preventive maintenance program should be established and be based on recommendations made by the lifter manufacturer or a qualified person.
Adjustments and repairs: any hazards disclosed during an inspection shall be corrected before the lifting device is put back into service. Adjustments and repairs shall be done only under the direction of, or by a qualified person.
Replacement parts: replacement parts shall be at least, equivalent to the original manufacturer’s specifications.
Lifting Device Operating Practices
1. Lifting devices shall be operated only by the following qualified personnel:
- designated persons
- trainees under the direct supervision of a designated person
- maintenance and test personnel, when it is necessary in the performance of their duties
- inspectors (lifting devices)
2. The lifting device shall not be loaded in excess of its rated load or handle any load for which it is not designated.
3. The lifter shall be applied to the load in accordance with established procedures.
4. Before lifting, the operator shall make sure that lifter ropes or chains are not kinked, and that multiple-part lines are not twisted about each other.
5. Care should be taken to make certain the load is correctly distributed for the lifter being used.
6. The temperature of the load should not exceed the maximum allowable limits of the lifter.
7. The lifter shall be brought over the load in such a manner as to minimize swinging.
8. Care shall be taken that there is not sudden acceleration or deceleration of the load.
9. Do not allow load or lifter to come into contact with any obstruction.
10. The operator shall avoid carrying the load over people.
11. The lifter shall not be used for side pulls or sliding the load unless specifically authorized by a qualified person.
Miscellaneous Operating Practices
1. An operator shall not use a lifting device which is tagged "out of service" or otherwise designated as non-functioning.
2. "Out of service" tags on lifting devices shall not be removed without the approval of the person placing them or an authorized person.
3. The lifter, when not in use, should be stored at an assigned location.
4. Caution should be taken that operating markings or tags shall not be removed or defaced.
1. Initial inspection: prior to initial use, all new, altered, modified or repaired lifting devices shall be inspected by a designated person to ensure compliance with the provisions of this standard.
2. Inspection intervals: inspection procedure for lifters in regular service is divided into two general classifications based upon the intervals at such inspection should be performed. The intervals in turn are dependent upon the critical components of the lifters and the degree of their exposure to wear, deterioration or malfunction. The two general classifications are herein designated as frequent and periodic, with respective intervals between inspections as defined below.
3. Frequent inspection: this consists of visual examinations by the operator or other designated personnel with records not required.
- normal service--monthly
- heavy service--weekly to monthly
- severe service--daily to weekly
- special or infrequent service as recommended by a qualified person before and after each occurrence
4. Periodic inspection: this consists of visual inspection by an appointed person who makes records of apparent external conditions to provide the basis for a continuing evaluation. An external code mark on the lifter is an acceptable identification in lieu of records.
5. Normal Service: "equipment at site of use" yearly
6. Heavy Service as in (a) above, unless external conditions indicate that disassembly should be done to permit detailed inspection semiannually
7. Special or Infrequent Service: as recommended by a qualified person before the first such occurrence and as directed by the qualified person for any subsequent occurrences
Items such as the following shall be inspected at intervals, as defined above. In addition, visual observations should be conducted during regular service for any damage or evidence of malfunction which appears between regular inspections. Any deficiencies, such as listed below, shall be carefully examined and determination made as to whether they constitute a hazard:
- structural deformation, cracks or excessive wear on any part of the lifter
- loose or missing guards, fasteners, covers, stops or nameplates
- all functional operating mechanisms and automatic hold and release mechanisms for misadjustments interfering with operation
Complete inspections of the lifter shall be performed at intervals as defined above. Any deficiencies, such as listed below, shall be examined and determination made as to whether they constitute a hazard. These inspections shall include the requirements of frequent inspections, and in addition, items such as the following:
- loose bolts or fasteners
- cracked or worn gears, pulleys, sheaves, sprockets, bearings, chain and belts
- excessive wear of linkages and other mechanical parts
- excessive wear at the hoist hooking points and load support clevises or pins
The above are general guidelines only. Please refer to current OSHA, ANSI/ASME standards for complete specifications.